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Daya maju perusahaan cendawan tiram di Semenanjung Malaysia
(Viability of oyster mushroom industry in Peninsular Malaysia)
Mohd Zaffrie Mat Amin*, Yaseer Suhaimi Mohd** dan Azahar Harun*
Kata penunjuk: cendawan tiram, daya maju, kos pengeluaran, analisis kewangan

Abstrak
Aktiviti penanaman cendawan telah lama wujud di Malaysia dan diusahakan secara tradisional dan komersial. Antara cendawan yang popular di kalangan penduduk Malaysia ialah cendawan tiram kelabu (Pleurotus sajor-caju). Kajian ini bertujuan menilai daya maju perusahaan tiram kelabu di Semenanjung Malaysia dan data ini diperoleh daripada survei 149 pengusaha cendawan. Daya maju perusahaan cendawan diukur menggunakan analisis kewangan nilai bersih kini, kadar pulangan dalaman dan faedah berbanding dengan kos. Dapatan kajian ini menunjukkan secara umumnya, perusahaan cendawan di Semenanjung Malaysia dijalankan secara kecil-kecilan, menggunakan lebih kurang 6,000 bongkah cendawan dan menghasilkan 20 kg cendawan sehari. Secara purata, modal awal yang digunakan berjumlah RM28,484. Purata kos pengeluaran cendawan tiram kelabu ialah RM5.30/kg, manakala purata harga jualan di peringkat ladang ialah RM10/kg. Analisis kewangan menunjukkan nilai kini bersih bagi projek tanaman cendawan tiram kelabu dengan kadar diskaun 10% dan tempoh projek selama 5 tahun ialah RM114,797.35 dengan nilai nisbah faedah kos 1.96. Ini bermakna setiap RM1.00 yang dilaburkan memberi pulangan sebanyak RM0.96 dan kadar pulangan dalaman IIR ialah 34%. Penemuan ini menunjukkan perusahaan tanaman cendawan adalah berdaya maju dan mempunyai tempoh pulang modal yang singkat. Antara cabaran utama perusahan cendawan di Semenanjung Malaysia ialah masalah perolehan benih yang berkualiti, bahan input yang semakin mahal dan serangan perosak. Oleh itu, industri cendawan di Malaysia masih memerlukan sokongan kerajaan khususnya dalam menyediakan latihan kepada pengusaha, teknologi pengeluaran dan kawalan perosak.

Abstract
Mushroom cultivation has long existed in Malaysia as traditional and commercial farms. The most popular mushroom in Malaysian is grey oyster (Pleurotus sajorcaju). The aim of this study was to assess the viability of grey oyster industry in Peninsular Malaysia and data were obtained from a survey involving 149 mushrooms growers. Viability of the mushroom enterprises was measured using financial analysis of the net present value, internal rate of return and benefitcost analysis. The findings from this study indicated that mushroom industry in Peninsular Malaysia is carried out on a small-scale basis, using around 6,000 mushroom bags and produces an average of 20 kg/day mushrooms. On average, the initial capital required amounted to RM28.484. The average production cost of grey oyster mushroom is RM5.30/kg, while the average farm price is RM10/kg Financial analysis shows that the net present value of the project with a discount rate of 10% and the duration of the project over 5 years, is RM114,797.35, the benefit ratio is 1.96, which means that for every RM1.00 invested, the return is RM0.96 and the internal rate of return is 34%. These findings suggest that the mushrooms production is viable, and the breakeven period is 4 years. Among the key challenges faced by the mushrooms growers in Peninsular Malaysia are the supply of quality seeds, inputs more expensive and pest infestation. Thus, the mushroom industry in Malaysia still needs the support from the government, especially in providing technical training to the operators, technology production and pest control.

Copyright 2012 ©
Economic and Technology Management Research Centre,
MARDI Headquarters, Persiaran MARDI- UPM, 43300 SERI KEMBANGAN,
SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
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