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Kecekapan teknikal tanaman pisang: Perbandingan anak pisang kultur tisu dengan konvensional
(Technical efficiency of banana: comparison between tissue culture and conventional plantlet)
Fadhilah Annaim Huda Hashim* dan Tapsir Serin*
Kata petunjuk: kecekapan teknikal, pisang dan kultur tisu

Abstrak
Pengeluaran anak pisang melalui teknik kultur tisu telah mula dilaksanakan oleh MARDI sejak awal 80-an. Perbandingan kecekapan teknikal antara ladang pisang yang menggunakan anak pokok kultur tisu dengan cara konvensional telah dikaji dengan melibatkan 54 orang penanam pisang. Hasil kajian mendapati kos pengeluaran pisang bagi ladang konvensional 31% lebih tinggi daripada ladang kultur tisu. Kos racun serangga, tenaga kerja dan petrol/diesel memberi perbezaan yang signifikan antara kedua-dua jenis ladang. Kos racun serangga bagi ladang kultur tisu 47% lebih tinggi daripada ladang konvensional. Sebaliknya bagi kos tenaga kerja dan diesel/petrol, ladang konvensional lebih tinggi daripada ladang pisang kultur tisu masing-masing sebanyak 47% dan 57%. Fungsi pengeluaran Cobb-Douglas menunjukkan faktor yang mempunyai perkaitan yang signifikan dengan jumlah pengeluaran pisang ialah faktor tanah, tenaga kerja, anak pokok dan baja. Regresi linear berbilang mendapati faktor penentu yang mempengaruhi kecekapan teknikal lading ialah lokasi ladang dan varieti pisang. Secara amnya, ladang pisang yang menggunakan anak pokok kultur tisu adalah lebih baik kerana kos pengeluarannya lebih rendah walaupun memerlukan penambahbaikan dari segi amalan teknologi dan kombinasi input bagi mempertingkatkan kecekapan pengeluaran.

Abstract
Production of banana using tissue culture had been studied and carried out by MARDI since in the early 80s. Technical efficiency was compared between production of banana using tissue culture and conventional plantlet through a study involving 54 selected farmers. The analyses showed that the production cost of the conventional farm was 31% higher than tissue culture farm. The costs of insecticide, worker and fuel were significantly different between both types of farm. The insecticide cost for tissue culture farm was 47% higher than the conventional farm. However, costs for worker and fuel consumption in the conventional farm were 47% and 57% higher as compared to the tissue culture farm respectively. Cobb-Douglas production function analyses showed that land, workers, plantlet and fertilizer were significantly affected the level of production. Multiple linear regression found that the determining factor affecting farm technical efficiency were farm location and banana varieties. In general, the use of tissue culture plantlet in banana plantation should be encouraged because of its lower production cost than the conventional farm despite the need of improvement in the technology and combination of inputs to improve production efficiency.

Copyright 2012 ©
Economic and Technology Management Research Centre,
MARDI Headquarters, Persiaran MARDI- UPM, 43300 SERI KEMBANGAN,
SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
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