Food and livelihood security of the Malaysian paddy farmers
(Bekalan makanan dan jaminan kesejahteraan hidup di kalangan petani padi di Malaysia)
Mohd Rashid Rabu* and Mohd Dainuri Mohd Shah*
Keywords: livelihood food security, paddy farmers, household income

The National Food Security Policy aims to increase the National Self Sufficiency Level (SSL) of domestic rice production from 70% in 2010 to 85% by 2015. This will reduce the importation of rice from 30% to 15% by 2015. Malaysia needs to produce around 2.5 million metric tonnes of paddy annually. There are about 300,000 farmers involved in paddy production of which almost 30% are full time farmers. They are the backbone of the industry and determinant of the national food security target. Despite achieving the national food security agenda, it is important to understand the status of the paddy farmers’ livelihood, especially their socioeconomic status in relation to their ability to achieve their minimum living expenditures. This study investigated the farmers’ livelihood status, which was indicated by their monthly households’ income and expenditure compared to national households income and expenditures level. This study revealed that the farmers’ monthly household income in three granary areas were higher than the national poverty income level, but lower than the national households’ income level. The income from paddy activities was not sufficient to support the household monthly expenditure of farmers in Projek Barat Laut Selangor (PBLS) and Muda Agriculture Development Authority (MADA) as they had to get support from other sources of income. On the other hand, the income from paddy activities was sufficient to support household livelihood for farmers in Kemubu Agriculture Development Authority (KADA). The living cost in KADA was relatively low compared to that in PBLS and MADA.

Dasar Jaminan Makanan Negara menyasarkan untuk meningkatkan tahap sara diri pengeluaran beras negara daripada 70% pada tahun 2010 kepada 85% menjelang tahun 2015. Ini dijangka akan dapat mengurangkan import beras negara daripada 30% kepada 15% menjelang tahun 2015. Untuk