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An analysis of food security in selected ASEAN countries
(Analisis keselamatan makanan di negara ASEAN terpilih)

Khairul Hafifi Maidin* and Tapsir Serin*
Keywords: food security, food production, per capita income, access women status

Abstract
This study examined the annual food security situation and its determinants in selected ASEAN countries for the period of 1967 to 2009. The data analysis techniques involved both descriptive and econometric analyses, where ordinary least square procedure of regression was used in the econometric analysis. The results of the study revealed that the selected ASEAN countries were food secure, although, the long run sustainability of food security remains to be an issue. This was based on per capita food availability and dietary energy supply as well as dietary energy requirement.

The determinants of food security were analysed in the empirical analysis. Total food production, per capita income and access women status were significant factors in explaining the level of food security in the long term in the selected four ASEAN countries. The regression model showed that 1% increase in total food production would result in increase food security by 0.036%, whereas each 1% increase in per capita income increases the food security by 0.027%. Similarly, access women status has positive relationship with food security, 1% increase in access women status would result in increase food security by 0.397%.

Abstrak
Kajian ini meneliti kedudukan dan penentu kepada jaminan makanan di negara-negara ASEAN yang terpilih dari 1967 hingga 2009. Teknik analisis data melibatkan analisis deskriptif dan ekonometrik yang menggunakan kaedah regresi kuasa dua terkecil. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan makanan di negara-negara ASEAN yang dipilih adalah dalam keadaan terjamin, walaupun masih lagi menjadi isu untuk jangka masa panjang. Keputusan ini adalah berdasarkan analisis empirikal terhadap indeks ketersediaan makanan per kapita dan bekalan tenaga daripada pemakanan serta keperluan tenaga diet. Jumlah pengeluaran makanan, pendapatan per kapita dan status akses wanita telah dikaji dan didapati menjadi faktor penting dalam menjelaskan tahap jaminan makanan dalam jangka panjang di negara-negara ASEAN yang terpilih. Model regresi menunjukkan bahawa 1% peningkatan dalam jumlah pengeluaran makanan akan meningkatkan sekuriti makanan sebanyak 0.036%, manakala setiap 1% peningkatan dalam pendapatan per kapita meningkatkan keselamatan makanan sebanyak 0.027%. Begitu juga, tahap wanita akses mempunyai hubungan positif dengan keselamatan makanan iaitu peningkatkan 1% dalam tahap wanita akses akan meningkatkan sekuriti makanan sebanyak 0.397%.

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Economic and Technology Management Research Centre,
MARDI Headquarters, Persiaran MARDI- UPM, 43300 SERI KEMBANGAN,
SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
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