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Ekonomi penternakan rumpai laut di Sabah
(Seaweed cultivation economy in Sabah)
Rashilah Mohamad* dan Nur Fazliana Md Noh*
Kata kunci: penternakan rumpai laut berskala kecil, Semporna, Kunak, Tawau, daya maju penternakan

Abstrak
Sabah merupakan pengeluar utama rumpai laut di Malaysia dengan keluasan kawasan penternakan 12,895 hektar. Kajian telah dijalankan untuk menentukan modal pelaburan awalan yang telah dilaburkan bagi penternakan rumpai laut secara kecil-kecilan dan juga untuk menentukan daya maju projek penternakan. Sejumlah 292 penternak rumpai laut telah disoal selidik di tiga daerah penternakan utama di negeri Sabah, iaitu Semporna, Kunak dan Tawau. Kajian menunjukkan semua responden mengamalkan kaedah penanaman rawai seperti yang disarankan oleh Jabatan Perikanan Sabah. Sebanyak 40% responden mengamalkan tempoh pusingan penternakan 40 hari. Purata produktiviti tahunan tertinggi bagi rawai sepanjang 1,000 meter direkodkan di Tawau. Kebanyakan responden (74%) menternak 9 – 12 kali setahun, dengan purata kos pengeluaran RM0.42 sehingga RM0.64 sekilogram kering. Penternakan secara kecil-kecilan ini memberikan pulangan yang lumayan dengan purata margin keuntungan RM1.40 hingga RM1.60 sekilogram, manakala purata kadar pulangan dalaman ternakan 42 – 78% (berdasarkan harga jualan RM4.00/kg). Ini jelas menunjukkan penternakan rumpai laut secara kecil-kecilan ini memberikan pulangan ekonomi yang baik.

Abstract
Sabah is the major seaweed producing state in Malaysia with cultivated hectarage of 12,895. A total of 292 seaweed small farmers in three major producing districts namely Semporna, Kunak and Tawau were surveyed to determine the amount of investment needed to venture into the cultivation business and subsequently to determine the viability of the venture. It was found out that all respondents practised the same method of long-line cultivation which has been suggested by Sabah Fisheries Department. About 40% of the respondents adopted 40 days per cultivation cycle thus practising between 9 and 12 cultivation cycles per year. The highest productivity per year based on 1,000 m line was recorded in Tawau. Average production cost per kilogramme of dried seaweed was between RM0.42 and RM0.64, while the margin was between RM1.40 and RM1.60 (based on selling price of RM4.00/kg). The average internal rate of return was between 42% and 78%. This is evidence that a small scale seaweed cultivation yielded favourable economic return.

Copyright 2012 ©
Economic and Technology Management Research Centre,
MARDI Headquarters, Persiaran MARDI- UPM, 43300 SERI KEMBANGAN,
SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
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