Print

Ekonomi pengeluaran dan keperluan teknologi kopi: Perbandingan antara kopi jambu dan kopi beras
(Economic production and technology needs of coffee: Comparison of coffee cherry and coffee bean)

Abstrak

Selari dengan perkembangan industri minuman dan kemunculan rangkaian kopitiam yang semakin banyak di Malaysia, permintaan terhadap biji kopi dan produk berasaskan kopi semakin meningkat. Walau bagaimanapun, pembangunan pengeluaran kopi tempatan kurang menggalakkan dan tidak dapat memenuhi permintaan tempatan. Justeru, kajian telah dijalankan bagi menilai status, cabaran dan isu-isu yang mempengaruhi industri kopi di Malaysia serta daya maju industri tersebut. Perbincangan kumpulan fokus dengan 35 orang responden yang terdiri daripada agensi kerajaan, pengusaha dan penanam kopi telah dilakukan. Maklumat yang diperoleh kemudiannya dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis SWOT dan analisis kos-faedah. Dapatan kajian mendapati terdapat pelbagai isu yang timbul dalam memajukan industri ini. Antara isu utama ialah masalah dalam sistem pengeluaran seperti kos buruh yang tinggi dan kesukaran penuaian hasil kerana buah yang masak tidak serentak. Analisis kos dan pendapatan menunjukkan penanaman kopi merupakan projek yang berdaya maju. Purata hasil pengeluaran biji kopi dan kopi beras bagi tanaman tunggal masing-masing ialah 14,350 kg/ha dan 1,435 kg/ha dengan pendapatan bersih tahunan sehektar ialah RM5,715.80 dan RM20,065.80. Nilai IRR pula masing-masing 30 dan 62%. Ini bermakna, jualan kopi dalam bentuk kopi beras lebih berdaya maju dan menjana keuntungan berbanding kopi jambu. Secara amnya, aktiviti penanaman kopi adalah berintensif buruh dan penyelidikan dan pembangunan (R&D) industri kopi masih di tahap yang rendah. Justeru, penambahbaikan terutamanya dari aspek teknologi penting agar industri ini mampu menjadi salah satu industri yang menyumbang kepada perkembangan ekonomi negara.

Abstract

In parallel with the development of the beverage industry and the emergence of a growing number of coffee houses network in Malaysia, the demand for coffee beans and coffee-based products is increasing. Yet so, the developments of the local coffee production are less encouraging and unable to meet local demand. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the status, challenges and issues affecting the coffee industry in Malaysia as well as the viability of the industry. Focus group discussions with 35 participants consisting of government agencies, employers and coffee growers (farmers) have been done. The information obtained is then analysed using SWOT and cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The study reveals that there are various issues and challenges arising in advancing the industry. Among the key issues is a problem in production systems such as high costs of labour and difficulties in harvesting due to fruits ripen unevenly. Financial analysis shows that coffee cultivation is a viable project. The average production of coffee cherry and coffee bean for a single crop each is 14,350 kg/ha and 1,435 kg/ha with an annual net income per hectare is RM5,715.80 and RM20,065.80. The IRR was respectively, 30 and 62%. This means that the sale of coffee in coffee bean more viable and profitable than coffee cherry. Generally, the cultivation of coffee is labour-intensive and research and development (R&D) of coffee industry is still in a low level. Thus, improvements in terms of technology are particularly important for this industry to become one of the industries that contribute to the economic development of the country.

Copyright 2012 ©
Economic and Technology Management Research Centre,
MARDI Headquarters, Persiaran MARDI- UPM, 43300 SERI KEMBANGAN,
SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
Best viewed in IE 8.0, Mozilla Firefox 3.0, Google Chrome version 9.0 & above