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 Fragrant rice overview: Benefits and implications of local production
(Tinjauan industri beras wangi: Faedah dan implikasi pengeluaran tempatan)

Abstract

Based on the growing demand for specialty rice, existing policies on paddy and rice industries should be transformed to enable the allocation of growing specialty rice within granary as well as non-granary areas. MARDI has introduced four varieties of fragrant rice known as MRQ 50, MRQ 74, MRQ 76 and MARDI Wangi 88. The cost of production is the vital element that will support the acceptance of farmers to cultivate fragrant rice. Results showed that the total cost of paddy production for MARDI Wangi 88 with subsidies was RM4,335.00/ha, while the cost of non-subsidised production was at RM5,801.05/ha and with the current price of RM1,500, farmers’ net income was at RM1,964/ ha and RM458.5/ha, respectively. The findings also showed that 87% of the farmers surveyed were willing to cultivate the fragrant rice in their rice fields. As for granary areas, 91% of them were willing to grow the fragrant rice and for the non-granary areas was a bit lower at 82%. Two most preferred varieties were MRQ 76 and MARDI Wangi 88, both at 40.4%. The results from consumers’survey revealed that 78% of them were willing to change their daily intake from white rice to MARDI fragrant rice while 22% still preferred the white rice. As for MARDI’s fragrant rice, the most preferred variety was MRQ 76 (30%), followed by MRQ 74 (27%) and MARDI Wangi 88 (21%). These findings indicated a strong signal to further enhance the cultivation of fragrant rice in granary and non-granary areas. The analysis on the benefits and implications also stated that the value of benefits was higher with the terms and conditions applied. Hence, the government policies need to be strengthened on pursuing the growing of fragrant rice in Malaysia. The profit margin analysis should be as a guideline for the industries to estimate their profits and losses. Therefore, in facing future challenges, the subsidy structure and incentives for rice should be scrutinised by the government in order to become a competitive industry.

Abstrak

Berdasarkan permintaan yang semakin meningkat khususnya beras istimewa, polisi dasar sedia ada mengenai industri padi dan beras negara harus diubah dengan membolehkan beras istimewa, terutamanya beras wangi untuk ditanam di kawasan jelapang dan juga di luar kawasan jelapang. MARDI telah memperkenalkan empat jenis beras wangi yang dikenali sebagai MRQ 50, MRQ 74, MRQ 76 dan MARDI Wangi 88. Kos pengeluaran adalah elemen penting yang akan menyokong penerimaan petani untuk menanam padi wangi. Keputusan menunjukkan kos pengeluaran bagi varieti MARDI Wangi 88 dengan subsidi adalah RM4,335.00/ha, manakala tanpa subsidi ialah sebanyak RM5,801.05/ha dan dengan harga semasa iaitu RM1,500/mt, purata pendapatan bersih yang akan diperolehi oleh petani adalah RM1,964/ha dan RM458.50/ha masing-masing. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa 87% petani sanggup untuk menukar dari penanaman padi putih kepada padi wangi di sawah mereka. Bagi kawasan jelapang, 91% responden sanggup menanam padi wangi manakala di luar kawasan jelapang, peratusan adalah lebih rendah iaitu 82%. Dua jenis varieti yang paling digemari untuk ditanam ialah MRQ 76 dan MARDI Wangi 88, kedua-duanya pada 40.4%. Di pihak pengguna, kajian yang dijalankan menunjukkan bahawa 78% pengguna sanggup mengubah pengambilan beras harian mereka ke beras wangi MARDI manakala 22% kekal dengan penggunaan beras putih. Pengguna paling menyukai MRQ 76 (30%), diikuti oleh MRQ 74 (27%) dan MARDI Wangi 88 (21%). Analisis mengenai faedah dan implikasi juga menunjukkan nilai manfaat yang lebih tinggi dengan terma dan syarat yang digunakan. Justeru itu, dasar kerajaan perlu diperkukuhkan bagi meneruskan penanaman beras wangi di Malaysia. Analisis margin keuntungan boleh digunakan sebagai garis panduan bagi industri untuk menganggarkan keuntungan dan kerugian mereka. Oleh itu, bagi menghadapi cabaran masa depan, struktur subsidi dan insentif untuk beras wangi perlu diteliti oleh kerajaan supaya ia menjadi industri yang kompetitif.

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