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Impact of urban farming technology on urban community
in Malaysia
(Impak teknologi pertanian bandar kepada komuniti bandar di Malaysia)

Abstract
Urban farming roles and functions have evolved due to the revolution in health and nutrition intake by humans. Urban farming has been used as one
of the food sources to beautify houses and at the same time to suit the needs of changing lifestyles. Factors such as urbanisation, urban poverty and limited agricultural land have become pushed factors for urban farming. Around 76% of the Malaysian population are estimated to live in urban areas. Among them
are people in the Bottom 40 category, with a household income of less than RM4,360 per month. It is estimated that between 50% and 70% of their income
is spent on food, which has led them to be categorised as ‘urban poor’. Urban farming is seen as an ideal approach to overcome this scenario. Therefore, this
study was aimed at identifying the effectiveness of urban farming in reducing the cost of household expenses. A combination of qualitative and quantitative
approaches were carried out through the use of a questionnaire, focus group discussion (FGD) and face-to-face interviews. Four urban farming technologies,
aquaponics, fertigation, hydroponics and vertical farming have been commonly used by the urban farming community. Out of these four, aquaponics has been the
most popular because it is the most efficient of all the technologies. This study revealed that urban farming had benefited the urban community as well as create
awareness through the supply of nutritious vegetables to households, improve the appearance of the housing compounds and reduced household expenses. There was a significant reduction of RM66 per month on average which signified a positive impact on reducing household expenses. Meanwhile, the factor analysis
showed that respondents had focused on the advantages of the implementation of the urban agricultural approach.

Abstrak
Peranan dan fungsi pertanian bandar telah berkembang selari dengan revolusi amalan pengambilan makanan dan kesihatan manusia. Pendekatan pertanian bandar telah digunakan sebagai salah satu sumber makanan, instrumen untuk memperindah rumah, dan pada waktu yang sama untuk memenuhi perubahan
gaya hidup. Faktor-faktor seperti urbanisasi, kemiskinan bandar dan tanah untuk pertanian yang terhad telah menjadi faktor pendorong kepada keperluan pertanian bandar. Sebanyak 76% penduduk Malaysia dianggarkan menetap di kawasan bandar. Antaranya adalah penduduk bandar kategori B40 dengan pendapatan isi rumah kurang dari RM4,360 sebulan. Dianggarkan bahawa antara 50% dan 70% daripada pendapatan mereka dibelanjakan untuk makanan, yang menyebabkan mereka dikategorikan sebagai 'miskin bandar'. Pelaksanaan program pertanian bandar dilihat sebagai pendekatan yang ideal untuk mengatasi situasi ini. Oleh itu, kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti keberkesanan pertanian bandar dalam mengurangkan kos perbelanjaan isi rumah. Kombinasi pendekatan kualitatif dan kuantitatif dilakukan melalui penggunaan set soal selidik, perbincangan kumpulan fokus (FGD) dan temu bual bersemuka. Empat jenis sistem penanaman teknologi pertanian bandar yang biasa diamalkan oleh komuniti adalah seperti akuaponik, fertigasi, hidroponik dan vertical farming. Dari keempat-empat teknologi terlibat, akuaponik merupakan yang paling popular kerana dilihat sebagai paling efisien berbanding dengan teknologi lain. Kajian ini memberi pendedahan bahawa pendekatan pertanian bandar memberi banyak manfaat kepada komuniti setempat. Di samping mewujudkan kesedaran terhadap makanan berkhasiat melalui penyediaan sayur-sayuran segar kepada isi rumah, persekitaran perumahan mereka cantik dan menarik serta mengurangkan perbelanjaan isi rumah. Terdapat pengurangan yang signifikan dengan jumlah purata penjimatan perbelanjaan sebanyak RM66 sebulan dalam kalangan komuniti terlibat. Selain itu, analisis faktor menunjukkan bahawa responden telah menumpukan pada kelebihan pelaksanaan pendekatan pertanian bandar.

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