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Abstract
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) was identified as flagship of the Malaysian fruits under the Third National Agriculture Policy (1998–2010). This study was to evaluate the issues, challenges and the competitiveness of the local mangosteen industry. This case study involved farmers, traders, collectors and exporters. The competitiveness of mangosteen industry was measured using benefit cost ratio. The areas planted with mangosteen were found to have declined from 7,630 ha (1998) to 6,060 ha (2010). However, the total production increased from 16,000 t to more than 28,900 t in the same period. Mangosteen was dominated by smallholders, where the average farm size was 0.3 ha/farmer. Most of mangosteen trees were over 25 years old, although there were some new plantings. The majority of farmers was over 50 years old and inherited the orchards from their parents. The production cost (operation) was 1,781/ha/year and the highest component was labour (62.3%). The cost of production and marketing was RM0.99/kg for the local market and RM1.37/kg for the export market. The average farm price was RM1.70/kg and FOB (KLIA) price was RM5.80/kg. The benefit cost ratio was 1.72 for domestic market and 4.23 for export market. The gross margin in local market was RM0.71/kg, while for export market was RM4.43/kg. Thus, the Malaysian mangosteen industry is still competitive in local as well as in export markets. Besides pest and diseases, the main factor that hinders the mangosteen competitiveness is the long juvenile period, where the plant takes more than 6 years to come to full bearing.

 

 

Abstrak

Dalam Dasar Pertanian Negara Ketiga (1998–2010), manggis telah dipilih sebagai buah kemegahan negara kerana potensinya untuk menjana pendapatan daripada aktiviti perdagangan antarabangsa. Kajian telah dijalankan bagi menilai status, isu, cabaran, daya maju dan prospek industri manggis di Malaysia. Kajian kes ini melibatkan pengusaha, penjual, peraih dan pengeksport. Daya maju industri manggis diukur menggunakan kaedah nisbah faedah berbanding kos (B/C ratio). Kawasan tanaman manggis didapati merosot daripada 7,630 ha (1998) kepada 6,060 ha (2010). Walau bagaimanapun, jumlah pengeluaran meningkat daripada 16,000 tan kepada lebih 28,900 tan dalam tempoh yang sama. Industri manggis Malaysia berskala kecil dengan purata keluasan tanaman 0.3 ha/pengusaha. Kebanyakan pokok manggis berusia melebihi 25 tahun dan sangat sedikit kawasan tanaman baru. Majoriti pengusaha berusia lebih 50 tahun dan mewarisi dusun manggis keluarga. Kos pengeluaran manggis ialah RM1,781/ha/tahun dengan komponen kos tertinggi ialah upah buruh (62.3%). Kos pengeluaran dan pemasaran ialah RM0.99/kg untuk pasaran dalam negara dan RM1.37/kg untuk pasaran luar negara. Purata harga manggis di peringkat ladang ialah RM1.70/kg dan harga FOB (KLIA) ialah RM5.80/kg. Nilai faedah berbanding dengan kos ialah 1.72 bagi pasaran domestik dan 4.23 pasaran eksport. Margin kasar manggis ialah RM0.71/kg bagi pasaran domestik dan RM4.43/kg pasaran luar negara. Oleh itu, industri manggis Malaysia masih berdaya saing di pasaran dalam dan luar negara. Selain masalah penyakit dan gamosis, cabaran utama industri manggis ialah tempoh masa berbuah yang mengambil masa sekurang-kurangnya 6 tahun.

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Economic and Technology Management Research Centre,
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